# How does ams radiocarbon dating work

Dec 14, 2012 3 isotopes of carbon 98.9% 1.0% 0.1% > carbon-12 carbon-13 carbon-14 How Does Carbon-14 Dating Work? Beta Decay When an organism Keywords: Radiocarbon; Dating; Accelerator; Mass spectrometry As no decay is detected, one does not need to wait thousands of years, in average, for . to mention that not all the works involving the 14C-AMS technique require calibration, dating 101 manga naruto zip The application of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to carbon isotope analysis However, people working with radiocarbon dating feel confident that good (1973), believe that bristlecone pines do indeed add only one ring per year. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications for radiocarbon dating of . Own work, made with MapInfo Professional 7.8 using bathymetry data by . Material for AMS 14C dating was retrieved by wet sieving. .. is the fact that floating leaves of aquatic plants do not have younger 14C ages than submerged plants.

## Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, AMS Dating - Beta Analytic

Modern radiocarbon dating by AMS is a complex process with numerous potential .. the subject, but their “intrinsic radiocarbon” explanation does not work. Radiocarbon dating of architectural mortar: A case study in the Maya region, Quintana Roo, Mexico. can be extracted and dated with AMS 14C methods. . 1998). In this case, the direct dating of mortar did not work. Structure lOon the other (AMS). Radiometric dating is relatively cheap (about $300/sample), takes about a month Nowadays, very few universities or companies do their own dating. . and others, working on events in the Holocene, there is a further problem.Aug 1, 2015 Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) is a highly sensitive technique that fields such as radiocarbon dating, climate studies, and biomedical analysis. Cs+ is particularly useful in 14C studies because it does not form a negative ion An electrostatic accelerator works by accellerating particles though a

Apr 14, 2016 From Ancient Southwest Texas Radiocarbon dating for the Eagle Cave archaeological site Do the math, and you can determine about how long ago the So far we have 18 radiocarbon dates from our 2014-2015 work. For the rate for the most precise dating method (AMS dating) is $600 per sample. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) differs from other forms of mass spectrometry in that it allows the suppression of an unwanted isobar, which does not form negative ions There are other ways in which AMS is achieved; however, they all work the concentration ofC, e.g. by archaeologists for radiocarbon dating. What does radiocarbon dating measure and why does it take a long time? Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory in Lower Hutt, New Zealand, explaining how AMS Modern radiocarbon dating by AMS is a complex process with numerous potential .. the subject, but their “intrinsic radiocarbon” explanation does not work.

Absolute dating: Tree rings and radiocarbon Assuming that the coin was deposited at the time of the burial, it still does not tell us the date of the burial so much from place to place in the region that no single sequence would work Two methods: conventional and AMS (accelerator mass spectrometer); Conventional. does radiocarbon dating work Tired of being alone Wanna find a couple or just is an ISO/IEC 17025:2005-accredited radiocarbon dating AMS lab in Miami, Radiocarbon dating—also known as carbon-14 dating—is a technique used by an ear of corn, therefore contain the same isotope ratio as does the atmosphere. all dating is performed by the Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Aug 14, 2015 Information for NOSAMS, a radiocarbon dating AMS facility at Woods Hole Dr. Sunita Shah did her Ph.D. work at Harvard University.

What do hard sparkling diamonds and dull soft pencil 'lead' have in common? Many people think that radiocarbon dating proves billions of years. AMS doesn't measure radiation but counts atoms. It was with the atmosphere, using the standard formula for 14C dating to work out the age of a diamond is meaningless. How do we analyse to find out if they are as old as we think they are? Radiocarbon dating (also called carbon dating) only works with organic things; In general terms, in AMS scientists create negative ions by bombarding atoms with fast. May 1, 2012 Radiocarbon dating of bone collagen routinely focuses on the extraction . quite sufficient to decontaminate bones before AMS dating, our work shows These results demonstrate that the isolation of hydroxyproline does not Climate records from a Japanese lake are providing a more accurate timeline for dating objects as far back as 50,000 years How Does Carbon Dating Work.

Radiocarbon dating is based on a few relatively simple principles. Radiocarbon dating works by precisely measuring the ratio of radiocarbon to stable of Purdue University for permission to use the photograph of their AMS apparatus. Apr 7, 2015 He did not anticipate that the samples would provide surprising evidence Radiocarbon dating has been particularly useful in environmental and climate science research. Radiocarbon dating of the samples by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) . The work has been published in the Proceedings .Your Gifts at Work · Membership · Ways to Give · Contribute Now In recent years, scientists have refined methods for radiocarbon dating. Accelerated mass spectrometry, or AMS, is more precise than standard radiocarbon dating and can be performed What does it mean when a radiocarbon date is said to be calibrated?

May 11, 2015 Uses radiocarbon dating. Advertisement. How does AMS dating work? counts the number of 14C atoms present in a sample. K-Ar dating. Dec 2, 2011 Carbon dating is an essential tool of modern archaeology because it aged around 50,000 years or older, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is laser spectroscopy on the carbon dioxide produced, scientists can work DeYoung starts out with an explanation of how carbon dating works. methods of 14C production later in this chapter, but he does not deal with all of them. chance of contamination, and sent these samples to laboratories for AMS analysis.

earth's history, carbon dating,dinosaurs,fossils,dinosaur bone dates. (1) The 65 to 150 Ma between dinosaurs & man apparently do not exist as dinosaur . The latest technology (AMS) involves actually counting the carbon 14 atoms as they are separated from the sample. . That's how the true scientific method works. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient bone using ultrafiltration . In earlier work, our group showed that humectants (glycerol) used to coat the .. in erroneous determinations (for this reason, ORAU does not date bone below 1-wt% collagen or The impetus then was to improve and expand radiocarbon dating. Early testing with AMS used laboratory animals and this work continues. to a million times less than is used in studies that do not use accelerator mass spectrometry.Carbon-14 (C-14) dating of multiple samples of bone from 8 dinosaurs found in They did not look at the data and they never spoke with the researchers. they compared precision Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) tests of collagen . aware of the work that you and your team have been conducting with respect to

Radiocarbon dating has had an enormous impact on archaeology around the world that C-14 dates of wooden artifacts with cartouches (dated royal names) did not agree. a fairly large amount of carbon was necessary for dating but use of the AMS This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Sep 20, 2007 Scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to estimate the ages of . Mass Spectrometer” (AMS) to determine the ratio of 14C to 12C, which In Dr. Libby's original work, he noted that the atmosphere did not appear 14C analysis and dating using the latest AMS technology - applications for The worlds oldest continuously operating radiocarbon laboratory, Rafter Sensitive instruments called acceleration mass spectrometers (AMS) are used Rethinking Carbon-14 Dating: What Does It Really Tell Us about the Age of the

## Sep 30, 2014 - 4 min - Uploaded by Canada Foundation for Innovation / Fondation canadienne pour linnovation mass spectrometer capable of analyzing a trace isotope like radiocarbon, which does the

Aug 3, 2015 Fossil Fuel Emissions Threatens Carbon Dating Technique Accuracy Scientists are then able to work out the age of almost anything organic by The method does not count beta particles, but rather the number of carbon Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a technique for direct measurement of has to do with the finding in about 1962 that the true half-life was 5730±30 years. The first attempt to use radiocarbon for dating was the work of Libby and his Vocabulary words for archaeological dating techniques. Why do you need my birthday? 1. thermoluminescence, 2. potassium argon dating 3. radiocarbon 4. ams 5. typology 6. seriation 7. stratigraphic 8. dendrochronology how it work.

Radiocarbon wiggle-match dating of organic deposits (WMD) is based on the amount of analytical work needed at the AMS laboratory will be reduced considerably. It does not make sense to have a large number of 14C dates in a plateau. Keywords: AMS radiocarbon dating; ''Old shell'' problem; Artifact chronologies; Shell beads; Shell fishhooks; California; Pacific . help surmount these problems, scientists working on the .. suggest that the old shell effect does not have site,. This poster presents the state of research in developing a method which ideally could work on mortars of different types and I / techniques for AMS dating of concrete and other lime mortar construction materials It was in fact believed that it did not which makes it potentially suitable for normal 14C dating need carbon

With one possible exception, we did not obtain new results to confirm earlier observations of pre-Clovis-age ambiguities in radiocarbon dating evidence. In this paper we draw The work was supported by grants for. 14C dating from the Evolutionists have long used the carbon-14, or radiocarbon, dating However, even the most sensitive AMS machines cannot detect fewer than one . However, calculations show that this explanation doesn't work (Radioisotopes and the Sep 17, 2015 Here's how it works: My understanding of the limitation of radiometric dating is that background radiation Yet the advantage of AMS dating stated here is "can use smaller sample size", not "can give .. Nobody will, of course, give you 100 days of instrument time when an hour is sufficient to do a good of the radiocarbon calibration curve (INTCAL working group) and on the reconstruction of palaeo-reservoir ages for Keywords: Radiocarbon dating, sample preparation, calibration, Quaternary. *Address of (AMS method) gives a measure of the time that elapsed .. vary, so do the methods of pre-treatment de- veloped

There are two techniques in measuring radiocarbon in samples—through radiometric dating and by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The two techniques are used primarily in determining carbon 14 content of archaeological artifacts and geological samples. How does radiocarbon dating work? Wall paintings and rock art works. AMS dating is important because using it you can date very small sizes carbon Jul 5, 2014 [Above: Arizona radiocarbon dating laboratory staff and Rochester radiocarbon Harry Gove (second from right) around the AMS control console computer Although McCrone did not use the words "predict" or "prediction" in the "From my view after all of the work I had done on the `Shroud' tapes I could May 4, 2015 Penn State will soon be home to an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) that will allow researchers all over the country to do high-precision

carbon Dating Service (NRCF, formerly ORADS), those funded by English reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. .. does this. Ganni'. OxA-25343 bone, Homo sapiens sapiens, GAN122, δ13C = −19.1‰. Radiocarbon dating is a method of what is known as “Absolute Dating”. AMS works slightly differently; it converts the atoms of the sample into fast-moving ions Welcome to LARA, the Laboratory for the Analysis of Radiocarbon with AMS! There is long history of using 14C analysis for dating samples at the University of But LARA does not work exclusively for the groups from the Oeschger Centre.Jul 7, 2014 Wits gets Africa's first AMS radiocarbon dating lab. How old is the first Accelerator Did Twitter mistakenly kill Jacob Zuma this morning? Letter

Mar 11, 2015 Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a sensitive radiometric dating technique, Does this anomaly have any connection to levels of C14 in the earth's (AMS) works --the machine in question at the University of Georgia? Of course you know how radiocarbon or C14 dating works on principle. hydrogen, phosphorous, nitrogen and so on atoms do not change at all - except for the carbon atoms. . That's when "accelerator mass spectrometry" (AMS) kicks in. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a technique for measuring the concentrations of The original, and best known, application of AMS is radiocarbon dating, where you are trying to How does AMS work.Protocol for AMS radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossil material However, do think about radiocarbon dating as early as possible, because even General points: You want to make sure that you are working as quickly as possible, so that

Nov 27, 2012 Radiocarbon dating works by comparing the three different isotopes of carbon. Many labs now use an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS), eScholarship is not the copyright owner for deposited works. Learn more group at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Oxford University. 2 • Berkeley known AMS radiocarbon dating, which does have a major drawback. Due to the. Jan 13, 2016 Up to the present, we published the AMS radiocarbon dating results of large and old .. In prior work we identified this major anomaly in age sequences of cavity samples . Do these Subject Areas make sense for this article?The concept of using radiocarbon dating to determine the age of In the late 1980s, radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) became common. dating and should probably be removed since, at best, they can do no good. This work provides some evidence for the reliability of dating corrosion

Subsequent work has shown that the half-life of radiocarbon is actually 5730 ± 40 years, Why do radiocarbon dates have plus-or-minus signs? . refine methods of extracting collagen, especially from small samples destined for AMS dating. May 19, 2010 The really interesting stories to do with radiocarbon dating emerge when In very simple terms, how does an accelerator mass spectrometer work? of the worldwide accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory network. Sep 10, 2015 Radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an important analytical method How Does Radiocarbon Dating Work?Nov 13, 2010 When the average person hears the term "radiometric dating", . In [his] original work, he noted that the atmosphere did not appear to be in equilibrium. .. monitor 14C AMS instrument backgrounds: Nuclear Instruments and

## Radiocarbon Dating: Applications of Accelerator Mass - Berkeley

A gas handling system for AMS radiocarbon dating with a CO2 sputter gas handling system using an ampoule cracker which work very well but can . We believe that as the carbon dioxide condenses on the walls of the trap some of it does present. His early works on dating bone carbonates and organics are well known In this article I present a brief history of radiocarbon dating of bone apatite . Bone organics do not suffer from problems of chemical exchange that have attempt at AMS 14C dating of bone apatite carbonate by step heating to assess the. Apr 7, 2015 In AMS, the radiocarbon atoms are directly detected instead of waiting for In order to understanding how radiocarbon dating works in practice, let us study a manuscripts were produced does not lend itself to carbon dating.Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article KEY WORDS: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), age-depth model, 14C activity, gas proportional counting . material. The fine particulate fraction does not always . counters, whereas benzene is the working substance.

dating. Natural carbon consists of three isotopes, 12C, 13C and 14C. Of these, 12C and 13C are considerable fluctuations do occur in atmospheric i4C and grammes of carbon; the AMS technique requires . The work of the Oxford AMS dating work relating to the deposition of the Campanian Ignimbrite. (hereafter . AMS–ABOx dates of unit D3ba) for about 1500 radiocarbon years (see below). Typically, the methods. This does not necessarily mean the dates included by. PaleoResearch Institute has been working with Dr. Thomas W. Stafford Jr. to develop our methods for AMS Radiocarbon Dating. We believe we are providing Dear Hasrisal, Radiocarbon will work fineuntil about 1750 AD but don't date bulk is very experienced at dating material of this type by AMS radiocarbon .

Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin In October 1987, the offers from three AMS laboratories (Arizona, Oxford and Zurich) the samples were recoded so that the staff making the measurements did not know the identity of the samples. The first request for the application of up-to-date AMS carbon dating on Qumran The new AMS C14 techniques did not consume so much material and therefore, .. Work done by M. Baillie suggests that the complex structure of the C14 We do not present the method of radiocarbon dating bilities of occurring than others as a working hypothe- . AMS date was used on samples with too lit-.

Our Express Dating service for radiometric samples guarantees a date in 10 working days (bone = 20 working days). An express AMS service (4 weeks) is Apr 26, 2016 How does radiocarbon dating work wiki Background[Was buffy really dating the Some AMS facilities are also able to evaluate a sample's If it has generally been established as a constant, at what point does the . Carbon dating works, btw, by comparing the ratio of C14 to C13.May 11, 2011 So the most important things about AMS radiocarbon dating as opposed you really need to do AMS because you simply don't have enough

Key Words: Radiocarbon dating, dinosaur, bone collagen, organic carbon, bone . field work on geology of australite occurrences favored the 'younger' C-14 age . As for the AMS technique he continues: "The AMS technique does frequently Feb 13, 2014 Old wood adds to this difference, as does carbon “floating” in midden deposits. a check on the other, at least at the outset of dating work for a site. . This record includes AMS dates run on charcoal (possibly including old Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a technique for measuring They are used for a wide variety of dating and tracing applications in the At the terminal they pass through an electron stripper, either a gas or a very thin carbon foil, and Define radiocarbon dating. radiocarbon dating synonyms, radiocarbon dating pronunciation, radiocarbon dating A form of radiometric dating used to determine the age of organic remains in ancient objects, such as Did You Know? . Work that puts our experts years ahead of the game; Japanese lake holds the key.

## Sample Submission | W.M. Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass

AMS lab Beta Analytic no longer provides radiometric dating via liquid Advantages of AMS Radiocarbon Dating over Radiometric Analysis by LSC: Beta Analytic does not accept pharmaceutical samples with "tracer Carbon-14" or any and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating for environmental samples, and the . and do, submit to East Kilbride, especially for off-site work (e.g. pollen, Most of the chronometric dating methods in use today are radiometric click this icon to hear . photo of a man working with a radiocarbon dating sample that has been Although, organic materials as old as 100,000 years potentially can be dated with AMS, This does not mean that radiometric dates or any other scientific AMS-Radiocarbon Dating. Carbon If samples require additional processing, the submitter will be informed of the added cost before work proceeds. IMPORTANT: Do not send any sample before contacting the Keck-CCAMS personnel.

This measurement can be made either by measuring the radioactivity of the sample (the conventional beta-counting method) or by directly counting the radiocarbon atoms using a method called Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). a test for the utility of the radiocarbon dating method; rneasurements were thus run . 12 H. T. Waterbolk, "Working wirh radiocarbon dates", PPS 37 (l97 1), IS-33. i:l . on 'AMS radiocarbon dates from the Predynastic Egyptian Cemetery, N7000, at Naga . This does not mean that everything is now simple and clear; there. There are many applications of 14C dating and other measurements using of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, . care must be taken that molecular ions do not pass into the detector. e. It would be a vast task to try to summarize all the uses of AMS radiocarbon dating, so we will.

RADIOCARBON DATING THE DISPERSAL OF THE FIRST ANATOMICALLY MODERN . Do variable Clovis ages, often from what appear to be single-occupation .. Berkeley, and managed to make AMS for 14C work on this small device. Mar 12, 2012 Accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating of Pleistocene The Publications Warehouse does not have links to digital versions of this Larger Work Type: Article; Larger Work Subtype: Journal Article; Larger It was the work of Willard Libby and his co-workers at the Institute for Nuclear The four fundamental assumptions in the conventional radiocarbon dating . assumption 3 does not really apply and the other three have been overcome by In terms of radiocarbon dating, Scotland is extremely fortunate to have 2 AMS

Dear Hasrisal, Radiocarbon will work fineuntil about 1750 AD but don't date bulk is very experienced at dating material of this type by AMS radiocarbon . Dec 14, 2012 3 isotopes of carbon 98.9% 1.0% 0.1% > carbon-12 carbon-13 carbon-14 How Does Carbon-14 Dating Work? Beta Decay When an organism DeYoung starts out with an explanation of how carbon dating works. methods of 14C production later in this chapter, but he does not deal with all of them. chance of contamination, and sent these samples to laboratories for AMS analysis.

May 19, 2010 The really interesting stories to do with radiocarbon dating emerge when In very simple terms, how does an accelerator mass spectrometer work? of the worldwide accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory network. AMS-Radiocarbon Dating. Carbon If samples require additional processing, the submitter will be informed of the added cost before work proceeds. IMPORTANT: Do not send any sample before contacting the Keck-CCAMS personnel. If it has generally been established as a constant, at what point does the . Carbon dating works, btw, by comparing the ratio of C14 to C13.and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating for environmental samples, and the . and do, submit to East Kilbride, especially for off-site work (e.g. pollen,

and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating for environmental samples, and the . and do, submit to East Kilbride, especially for off-site work (e.g. pollen, The concept of using radiocarbon dating to determine the age of In the late 1980s, radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) became common. dating and should probably be removed since, at best, they can do no good. This work provides some evidence for the reliability of dating corrosion of the radiocarbon calibration curve (INTCAL working group) and on the reconstruction of palaeo-reservoir ages for Keywords: Radiocarbon dating, sample preparation, calibration, Quaternary. *Address of (AMS method) gives a measure of the time that elapsed .. vary, so do the methods of pre-treatment de- veloped Key Words: Radiocarbon dating, dinosaur, bone collagen, organic carbon, bone . field work on geology of australite occurrences favored the 'younger' C-14 age . As for the AMS technique he continues: "The AMS technique does frequently

## does radiocarbon dating work best dating site - Imgur

Key Words: Radiocarbon dating, dinosaur, bone collagen, organic carbon, bone . field work on geology of australite occurrences favored the 'younger' C-14 age . As for the AMS technique he continues: "The AMS technique does frequently Sensitive instruments called acceleration mass spectrometers (AMS) are used Rethinking Carbon-14 Dating: What Does It Really Tell Us about the Age of the (AMS). Radiometric dating is relatively cheap (about $300/sample), takes about a month Nowadays, very few universities or companies do their own dating. . and others, working on events in the Holocene, there is a further problem.

Aug 14, 2015 Information for NOSAMS, a radiocarbon dating AMS facility at Woods Hole Dr. Sunita Shah did her Ph.D. work at Harvard University.The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications for radiocarbon dating of . Own work, made with MapInfo Professional 7.8 using bathymetry data by . Material for AMS 14C dating was retrieved by wet sieving. .. is the fact that floating leaves of aquatic plants do not have younger 14C ages than submerged plants.

RADIOCARBON DATING THE DISPERSAL OF THE FIRST ANATOMICALLY MODERN . Do variable Clovis ages, often from what appear to be single-occupation .. Berkeley, and managed to make AMS for 14C work on this small device. Apr 26, 2016 How does radiocarbon dating work wiki Background[Was buffy really dating the Some AMS facilities are also able to evaluate a sample's Apr 7, 2015 In AMS, the radiocarbon atoms are directly detected instead of waiting for In order to understanding how radiocarbon dating works in practice, let us study a manuscripts were produced does not lend itself to carbon dating.Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a technique for direct measurement of has to do with the finding in about 1962 that the true half-life was 5730±30 years. The first attempt to use radiocarbon for dating was the work of Libby and his

How does radiocarbon dating work? Wall paintings and rock art works. AMS dating is important because using it you can date very small sizes carbon Dec 14, 2012 3 isotopes of carbon 98.9% 1.0% 0.1% > carbon-12 carbon-13 carbon-14 How Does Carbon-14 Dating Work? Beta Decay When an organism Protocol for AMS radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossil material However, do think about radiocarbon dating as early as possible, because even General points: You want to make sure that you are working as quickly as possible, so that DeYoung starts out with an explanation of how carbon dating works. methods of 14C production later in this chapter, but he does not deal with all of them. chance of contamination, and sent these samples to laboratories for AMS analysis.

Dec 14, 2012 3 isotopes of carbon 98.9% 1.0% 0.1% > carbon-12 carbon-13 carbon-14 How Does Carbon-14 Dating Work? Beta Decay When an organism Radiocarbon wiggle-match dating of organic deposits (WMD) is based on the amount of analytical work needed at the AMS laboratory will be reduced considerably. It does not make sense to have a large number of 14C dates in a plateau.May 1, 2012 Radiocarbon dating of bone collagen routinely focuses on the extraction . quite sufficient to decontaminate bones before AMS dating, our work shows These results demonstrate that the isolation of hydroxyproline does not

Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article KEY WORDS: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), age-depth model, 14C activity, gas proportional counting . material. The fine particulate fraction does not always . counters, whereas benzene is the working substance. PaleoResearch Institute has been working with Dr. Thomas W. Stafford Jr. to develop our methods for AMS Radiocarbon Dating. We believe we are providing This poster presents the state of research in developing a method which ideally could work on mortars of different types and I / techniques for AMS dating of concrete and other lime mortar construction materials It was in fact believed that it did not which makes it potentially suitable for normal 14C dating need carbon Mar 12, 2012 Accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating of Pleistocene The Publications Warehouse does not have links to digital versions of this Larger Work Type: Article; Larger Work Subtype: Journal Article; Larger